About 500,000 people a year undergo spinal surgery to fix bulging discs and broken vertebrae.
The New England Journal of Medicine published two conflicting studies about how to fix a condition where one vertebra slips down over the other: fuse or decompress?
The Cost of Our Behaviors:
70 percent of U.S. health care dollars are spent on conditions caused by patients' behavior and lifestyles.
36.5 percent of CDC estimates of obese Americans (2011-2014)
81 percent more spent on obese adults' direct health care costs than healthy weight adults
40 million Americans currently smoke
$35 estimates by the American Cancer Society that smokers will each pay in health care costs for each pack they smoke
The New Patient Contract:
Obese patients have a 22X greater risk of complications after surgery
Current smokers have a 17 percent greater chance of dying after surgery
Those with high blood sugar had 44 percent more incidences of wound reopening
Underweight patients have a 40 percent greater risk of death after surgery
What adds up to health?
Individual behavior: 40 percent
Health Care: 10 percent
Genetics: 30 percent
Social and environmental factors: 20 percent
What affects your health?
Chlorination has cut infant mortality by 75% since it was introduced in 1902.
In 1900, waterborne diseases accounted for 25% of infectious disease deaths.
Filtration reduced typhoid fever deaths by 46%.
Handwashing with soap reduces diarrhea morbidity by 44%.
The costs of asthma:
$6.2 billion in 1990
10.5 million missed school days
$56 billion in 2007
The Opioid Trail
Morphine extracted from opium as an analgesic
Merck & Company begins commercial manufacturing of morphine
Hypodermic needle developed by Dr. Alexander Wood to inject morphine
German physician Eduard Livenstein describes morphine addiction
U.S. Congress bans opium
Hydrocodone approved for consumption in the U.S. by FDA
Opioid antagonist/“overdose reversal drug” naloxone discovered
Purdue Pharma sells $48 million in OxyContin its first year on the market
Drug overdose deaths—38,329—surpass deaths from motor vehicle crashes—33,687
U.S. doctors wrote 300 million painkiller prescriptions worth $24 billion
But finding a cure for the disease that affects his father, along with 400 million people worldwide, has eluded him.
Inventing and implanting the first artificial heart in 1982.
How We Learn
46 percent of graduating med students don't feel prepared to be residents
80 percent of medicaol education takes place n inpatient settings
80-90 percent of medicine takes place in outpatient settings
Medical knowledge doubles every 50 years in 1950, and every 73 days in 2020
For the past three years, the cancer center has ranked in the top 5 percent for patient satisfaction among all academic medical centers in the nation.
High Cost of Burnout
1 doctor commits suicide per day
$250K to replace a family physician
68 percent of family physicians would not pick their specialty again
87 percent of physicians named paperwork and administration as No. 1 cause of work stress
63 percent of doctors believed that EHRs made their jobs less efficient
41 percent do not believe that EHRs actually improve patient care